Representation, Authorization, Business by Proxy
Allah's Apostle ordered me to distribute the saddles and skins of the Budn which I had slaughtered.
Narrated `Uqba bin Amir:
that the Prophet had given him sheep to distribute among his companions and a male kid was left (after the distribution). When he informed the Prophet of it, he said (to him), "Offer it as a sacrifice on your behalf."
Narrated `Abdur-Rahman bin `Auf:
I got an agreement written between me and Umaiya bin Khalaf that Umaiya would look after my property (or family) in Mecca and I would look after his in Medina. When I mentioned the word 'Ar64 Rahman' in the documents, Umaiya said, "I do not know 'Ar-Rahman.' Write down to me your name, (with which you called yourself) in the Pre-Islamic Period of Ignorance." So, I wrote my name ' `Abdu `Amr'. On the day (of the battle) of Badr, when all the people went to sleep, I went up the hill to protect him. Bilal(1) saw him (i.e. Umaiya) and went to a gathering of Ansar and said, "(Here is) Umaiya bin Khalaf! Woe to me if he escapes!" So, a group of Ansar went out with Bilal to follow us (`Abdur-Rahman and Umaiya). Being afraid that they would catch us, I left Umaiya's son for them to keep them busy but the Ansar killed the son and insisted on following us. Umaiya was a fat man, and when they approached us, I told him to kneel down, and he knelt, and I laid myself on him to protect him, but the Ansar killed him by passing their swords underneath me, and one of them injured my foot with his sword. (The sub narrator said, " `Abdur-Rahman used to show us the trace of the wound on the back of his foot.")
قَالَ أَبُو عَبْد اللَّهِ سَمِعَ يُوسُفُ صَالِحًا وَإِبْرَاهِيمُ أَبَاهُ
Narrated Abu Sa`id Al-Khudri and Abu Huraira:
Allah's Apostle employed someone as a governor at Khaibar. When the man came to Medina, he brought with him dates called Janib. The Prophet asked him, "Are all the dates of Khaibar of this kind?" The man replied, "(No), we exchange two Sa's of bad dates for one Sa of this kind of dates (i.e. Janib), or exchange three Sa's for two." On that, the Prophet said, "Don't do so, as it is a kind of usury (Riba) but sell the dates of inferior quality for money, and then buy Janib with the money". The Prophet said the same thing about dates sold by weight. (See Hadith No. 506).
Narrated Ibn Ka`b bin Malik from his father:
We had some sheep which used to graze at Sala'. One of our slavegirls saw a sheep dying and she broke a stone and slaughtered the sheep with it. My father said to the people, "Don't eat it till I ask the Prophet about it (or till I send somebody to ask the Prophet)." So, he asked or sent somebody to ask the Prophet, and the Prophet permitted him to eat it. 'Ubaidullah (a sub-narrator) said, "I admire that girl, for though she was a slave-girl, she dared to slaughter the sheep . "
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet owed somebody a camel of a certain age. When he came to demand it back, the Prophet said (to some people), "Give him (his due)." When the people searched for a camel of that age, they found none, but found a camel one year older. The Prophet said, "Give (it to) him." On that, the man remarked, "You have given me my right in full. May Allah give you in full." The Prophet said, "The best amongst you is the one who pays the rights of others generously."
Narrated Abu Huraira:
A man came to the Prophet demanding his debts and behaved rudely. The companions of the Prophet intended to harm him, but Allah's Apostle said (to them), "Leave him, for the creditor (i.e. owner of a right) has the right to speak." Allah's Apostle then said, "Give him a camel of the same age as that of his." The people said, "O Allah's Apostle! There is only a camel that is older than his." Allah's Apostle said, "Give (it to) him, for the best amongst you is he who pays the rights of others handsomely."
Narrated Marwan bin Al-Hakam and Al-Miswar bin Makhrama:
When the delegates of the tribe of Hawazin after embracing Islam, came to Allah's Apostle, he got up. They appealed to him to return their properties and their captives. Allah's Apostle said to them, "The most beloved statement to me is the true one. So, you have the option of restoring your properties or your captives, for I have delayed distributing them." The narrator added, Allah's Apostle c had been waiting for them for more than ten days on his return from Taif. When they realized that Allah's Apostle would return to them only one of two things, they said, "We choose our captives." So, Allah's Apostle got up in the gathering of the Muslims, praised Allah as He deserved, and said, "Then after! These brethren of yours have come to you with repentance and I see it proper to return their captives to them. So, whoever amongst you likes to do that as a favor, then he can do it, and whoever of you wants to stick to his share till we pay him from the very first booty which Allah will give us then he can do so." The people replied, "We agree to give up our shares willingly as a favor for Allah's Apostle." Then Allah's Apostle said, "We don't know who amongst you has agreed and who hasn't. Go back and your chiefs may tell us your opinion." So, all of them returned and their chiefs discussed the matter with them and then they (i.e. their chiefs) came to Allah's Apostle to tell him that they (i.e. the people) had given up their shares gladly and willingly.
Narrated Jabir bin `Abdullah:
I was accompanying the Prophet on a journey and was riding a slow camel that was lagging behind the others. The Prophet passed by me and asked, "Who is this?" I replied, "Jabir bin `Abdullah." He asked, "What is the matter, (why are you late)?" I replied, "I am riding a slow camel." He asked, "Do you have a stick?" I replied in the affirmative. He said, "Give it to me." When I gave it to him, he beat the camel and rebuked it. Then that camel surpassed the others thenceforth. The Prophet said, "Sell it to me." I replied, "It is (a gift) for you, O Allah's Apostle." He said, "Sell it to me. I have bought it for four Dinars (gold pieces) and you can keep on riding it till Medina." When we approached Medina, I started going (towards my house). The Prophet said, "Where are you going?" I Sa`d, "I have married a widow." He said, "Why have you not married a virgin to fondle with each other?" I said, "My father died and left daughters, so I decided to marry a widow (an experienced woman) (to look after them)." He said, "Well done." When we reached Medina, Allah's Apostle said, "O Bilal, pay him (the price of the camel) and give him extra money." Bilal gave me four Dinars and one Qirat extra. (A sub-narrator said): Jabir added, "The extra Qirat of Allah's Apostle never parted from me." The Qirat was always in Jabir bin `Abdullah's purse.
Narrated Sahl bin Sad:
A woman came to Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's Apostle! I want to give up myself to you." A man said, "Marry her to me." The Prophet said, "We agree to marry her to you with what you know of the Qur'an by heart."
Narrated Abu Huraira:
Allah's Apostle deputed me to keep Sadaqat (al-Fitr) of Ramadan. A comer came and started taking handfuls of the foodstuff (of the Sadaqa) (stealthily). I took hold of him and said, "By Allah, I will take you to Allah's Apostle ." He said, "I am needy and have many dependents, and I am in great need." I released him, and in the morning Allah's Apostle asked me, "What did your prisoner do yesterday?" I said, "O Allah's Apostle! The person complained of being needy and of having many dependents, so, I pitied him and let him go." Allah's Apostle said, "Indeed, he told you a lie and he will be coming again." I believed that he would show up again as Allah's Apostle had told me that he would return. So, I waited for him watchfully. When he (showed up and) started stealing handfuls of foodstuff, I caught hold of him again and said, "I will definitely take you to Allah's Apostle. He said, "Leave me, for I am very needy and have many dependents. I promise I will not come back again." I pitied him and let him go.
In the morning Allah's Apostle asked me, "What did your prisoner do." I replied, "O Allah's Apostle! He complained of his great need and of too many dependents, so I took pity on him and set him free." Allah's Apostle said, "Verily, he told you a lie and he will return." I waited for him attentively for the third time, and when he (came and) started stealing handfuls of the foodstuff, I caught hold of him and said, "I will surely take you to Allah's Apostle as it is the third time you promise not to return, yet you break your promise and come." He said, "(Forgive me and) I will teach you some words with which Allah will benefit you." I asked, "What are they?" He replied, "Whenever you go to bed, recite "Ayat-al-Kursi"-- 'Allahu la ilaha illa huwa-l-Haiy-ul Qaiyum' till you finish the whole verse. (If you do so), Allah will appoint a guard for you who will stay with you and no satan will come near you till morning. " So, I released him. In the morning, Allah's Apostle asked, "What did your prisoner do yesterday?" I replied, "He claimed that he would teach me some words by which Allah will benefit me, so I let him go." Allah's Apostle asked, "What are they?" I replied, "He said to me, 'Whenever you go to bed, recite Ayat-al-Kursi from the beginning to the end ---- Allahu la ilaha illa huwa-lHaiy-ul-Qaiyum----.' He further said to me, '(If you do so), Allah will appoint a guard for you who will stay with you, and no satan will come near you till morning.' (Abu Huraira or another sub-narrator) added that they (the companions) were very keen to do good deeds. The Prophet said, "He really spoke the truth, although he is an absolute liar. Do you know whom you were talking to, these three nights, O Abu Huraira?" Abu Huraira said, "No." He said, "It was Satan."
Narrated Abu Sa`id al-Khudri:
Once Bilal brought Barni (i.e. a kind of dates) to the Prophet and the Prophet asked him, "From where have you brought these?" Bilal replied, "I had some inferior type of dates and exchanged two Sas of it for one Sa of Barni dates in order to give it to the Prophet; to eat." Thereupon the Prophet said, "Beware! Beware! This is definitely Riba (usury)! This is definitely Riba (Usury)! Don't do so, but if you want to buy (a superior kind of dates) sell the inferior dates for money and then buy the superior kind of dates with that money."
Concerning the Waqf of `Umar: It was not sinful of the trustee (of the Waqf) to eat or provide his friends from it, provided the trustee had no intention of collecting fortune (for himself). Ibn `Umar was the manager of the trust of `Umar and he used to give presents from it to those with whom he used to stay at Mecca.
Narrated Zaid bin Khalid and Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, "O Unais! Go to the wife of this (man) and if she confesses (that she has committed illegal sexual intercourse), then stone her to death."
Narrated `Uqba bin Al-Harith:
When An-Nuaman or his son was brought in a state of drunkenness, Allah's Apostle ordered all those who were present in the house to beat him. I was one of those who beat him. We beat him with shoes and palm-leaf stalks.
I twisted the garlands of the Hadis (i.e. animals for sacrifice) of Allah's Apostle with my own hands. Then Allah's Apostle put them around their necks with his own hands, and sent them with my father (to Mecca). Nothing legal was regarded illegal for Allah's Apostle till the animals were slaughtered.
Narrated Anas bin Malik:
Abu Talha was the richest man in Medina amongst the Ansar and Beeruha' (garden) was the most beloved of his property, and it was situated opposite the mosque (of the Prophet.). Allah's Apostle used to enter it and drink from its sweet water. When the following Divine Verse were revealed: 'you will not attain righteousness till you spend in charity of the things you love' (3.93), Abu Talha got up in front of Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Allah says in His Book, 'You will not attain righteousness unless you spend (in charity) that which you love,' and verily, the most beloved to me of my property is Beeruha (garden), so I give it in charity and hope for its reward from Allah. O Allah's Apostle! Spend it wherever you like." Allah's Apostle appreciated that and said, "That is perishable wealth, that is perishable wealth. I have heard what you have said; I suggest you to distribute it among your relatives." Abu Talha said, "I will do so, O Allah's Apostle." So, Abu Talha distributed it among his relatives and cousins. The sub-narrator (Malik) said: The Prophet said: "That is a profitable wealth," instead of "perishable wealth".
Narrated Abu Musa:
The Prophet said, "An honest treasurer who gives what he is ordered to give fully, perfectly and willingly to the person to whom he is ordered to give, is regarded as one of the two charitable persons."